Science at a Distance

Biological Information

Lecture notes - Part 1 Lecture notes - Part 2

This Bio-Module requires the use of the text book " Exploring Life" by Professor John Blamire.

Lecture Notes

a check up

Use this department to check up on the accuracy of your lecture notes. Make sure that you have written down the following definitions, explanations and important concepts in your notes.

Biological Information - Part Three

Mechanisms of Inheritance

Biological information can be passed on from one generation to the next. Each gene, each trait, is faithfully copied and then the copy transferred to the new cell or organism as it reproduces and duplicates itself.

Cell Cycle and Life Cycle

All eukaryotic cells pass through a series of well defined stages as they grow, replicate their DNA, prepare, divide up the copies of the DNA molecules and divide. This is the cell cycle. Multicellular organisms also pass through recognized stages of growth, DNA replication, production of reproductive cells and the generation of new individuals who inherit DNA molecules. This is a life cycle

Chromosomes

Biological information is stored in the linear sequence of bases in molecules of DNA. DNA molecules are one of many components in larger structures, called chromosomes that store, regulate, help express, replicate and transmit biological information.

DNA Replication: The Beginning

At the appropriate time in the cell cycle the replication of the DNA molecules within the chromosomes begins. The two complementary strands of the molecule are separated and each strand acts as a template for the synthesis of an opposite, new, complementary strand.

Replication: At the Fork

At the replication fork DNA synthesis takes place using nucleotide triphosphates as precursors for each new strand. Enzymes line up a nucleotide base in a complementary relationship with one on the template strand, remove two of the phosphate groups from the nucleotide, and unite it with the new, growing strand.

Replication: Semiconservative

Apart from one or two unique viruses, all DNA in all cells is replicated and synthesized in the same manner. The separation of the two complementary strands is followed by the creation of two new complementary strands.

Separation of the Chromosomes

Before a cell can divide into two new cells, the daughter DNA molecules must be identified and separated from each other in an unambiguous way that ensures that both new cells receive one copy each.


Test Yourself with Quick Check Number BI-3025
Lecture Notes - Part 1 Lecture Notes - Part 2
Biological Information - Topic Outline

Science at a Distance
© 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 Professor John Blamire