Science, Scientists and the Scientific Method
1) Recording the color of the liquid in a thermometer is an example of a) a quantitative observation b) a measurement with a standard c) a qualitative observation d) a comparison e) an arbitrary observation 2) Recording the coldest temperature reached last winter is an example of? a) a quantitative observation b) a measurement with a standard c) a qualitative observation d) a comparison e) an arbitrary observation 3) One of the things for which Sir Issac Newton is famous is a) discovering the moon b) measuring the distance to the moon c) explaining why the moon and the earth stay together, i.e. gravity d) writing about science and the scientific method e) measuring the length of a ruler 4) Measurement is? a) a comparison with a standard b) a standard and a known distance c) a ruler d) a metaphysical concept first determined by the Egyptians e) an observation 5) The process scientists follow that helps them discover the "Laws of the Universe" is called? a) the scientific approach b) the method of analysis c) the science of discovery d) the scientific method e) the means to an end
Part Two: Atomic Structure
6) Niels Bohr was a Danish scientist who a) discovered atoms b) gave us the modern picture of what an atom looks like c) discovered molecules d) gave us the idea for covalent bonds e) discovered protons 7) Eugene Goldstein, in 1876, discovered strange "rays" coming from the cathode when a voltage was applied to two plates in a vacuum. He called this discovery Cathode Rays. In 1894 J.J. Thomson announced that these rays traveled much more slowly than light, and made the bold prediction that a) they were atoms of carbon b) they were tiny pieces of glass that had broken off the apparatus c) they were "corpuscles" of sub-atomic matter later called "electrons" d) they were molecules of methane e) they were the centers of atoms, later called protons 8) Earnest Rutherford discovered that alpha rays, emitted from a thin source, not only passed through a slit in a screen, but also passed through thin sheets of mica. They were positively charged, and as small as a hydrogen ion. What were they? a) atoms of oxygen b) electrons c) multiple atomic centers without electrons d) neutrons e) protons 9) Electrons can behave as (and be) both tiny amounts of mass and a wave at the same time. This is called a) mass-wave doubling b) particle-wave duality c) mass-particle cross over d) quantum physics e) particle-mass exchange 10) In Bohr's picture of the "quantum atom" electrons do not spiral down to destruction in the atomic center, because a) there would not be enough energy left to keep the other electrons in position b) electrons would have to lose a whole quantum of energy, all at one time, and it was not possible for this to happen. c) the protons in the center of the atoms prevented electrons from coming too close. d) the atomic centers were too small for this to happen in large atoms with lots of electrons. e) only two electrons have the same "quantum spin" in any one orbital, so the exclude one another (the Pauli principle). 11) When an electron is hit with a photon of light it absorbs the quanta of energy the photon was carrying and a) moves to another atom b) relocates within the orbital to a different spin resonance c) gives off radiation at lower wavelengths than that absorbed d) moves to an unstable state of quantum uncertainty e) moves to a higher energy state.
Part Two: Atomic Structure - joining atoms
12) Ions are a) hemopolymers. b) electrons that have been moved from one atom where they were unstable. c) the centers of hydrogen atoms before they join together d) atoms with more protons than electrons, or more electrons than protons e) the largest part of an atom 13) In a double covalent bond, such as that found in the oxygen molecule, how many electrons are the two atoms sharing? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 14) Oxygen is an electronegative atom, which means that in a water molecule the electrons in the covalent bonds holding the molecule together are a) closer to the hydrogen atoms b) closer to the oxygen atom c) shared differently in different bonds d) longer bonds that involve the oxygen atom have more energy e) are moving more rapidly when they come closer to the oxygen atom, making the water molecule unstable at room temperature. 15) William Henry Perkin was one of the first people to make a commercially successful, new, organic compound. What was it? a) a carbohydrate b) a neutral lipid c) a colored dye d) a piece of coal tar e) methane
Part Three: Macromolecules
16) Monomers are a) small atoms found in living organisms b) small groups of atoms that are unstable alone, but stable when provided with enough energy c) large, huge structures made by joining atoms to molecules to even larger structures d) small molecules, usually organic, that can join with other similar molecules to form very large molecules. e) what is left when water is removed from a pair of molecules at the time of union. 17) The primary structure of a protein is a) the length of the polymer from which it is made. b) the shape of the polymer from which it is made. c) the sequence, or order, of monomers along the polymer from which it is made. d) the type of sugars found attached to the polymer e) the first kind of structure seen when the polymer folds up. 18) Denaturation of proteins can be brought about by a) chilling in a refrigerator. b) freezing the molecules below the temperature of ice. c) warming the molecules slightly above body temperature d) heating the macromolecules to about 90oC e) placing the molecules in water. 19) What are the three component parts of a nucleotide? a) pentose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base b) phosphate group, nitrogenous base, amino acid c) nitrogenous base, amino acid, glucose d) amino acid, glucose, pentose sugar e) glucose, pentose sugar, phosphate group 20) The only sugar found in an RNA molecule is a) glucose b) ribose c) sucrose d) deoxyribose e) maltose 21) Heteropolymers contain more than one kind of monomer. Which of the following bio-polymers is also a heteropolymer? a) a hydrocarbon b) octane c) a neutral lipid d) starch e) a polypeptide
Part Four: Energy
22) A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from a) 0 to 10 degrees centigrade. b) 12.5 to 14.5 degrees centigrade. c) 13.5 to 14.5 degrees centigrade d) 14.5 to 15.5 degrees centigrade. e) 16 to 17 degrees centigrade. 23) Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only a) moved from cold regions to hot regions. b) used to make exogonic reactions take place faster. c) converted to calories. d) converted from calories to kilocalories. e) converted from one form into another. 24) Rudolf Clausius said in 1850 that "heat always shows a tendency to equalize temperature differences". This statement introduced the world to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which says that the amount of organized, usable energy in the universe is a) exothermic b) exogonic c) going in a non-spontaneous direction d) steadily decreasing e) being converted- to practical energy forms 25) When an electron moves from an energy level close to the center of an atom, to an energy level further away from the center of the atom, the electron a) gains in energy. b) loses energy. c) maintains the same energy. d) loses energy faster than before. e) loses energy more slowly than before.
Part Four: Biological Energy
26) When a catalyst is added to a non-spontaneous reaction, it a) speeds up the reaction without becoming altered itself. b) speeds up the reaction, but is altered in the process. c) speeds up the reaction, is altered during the reaction, but is recovered unaltered when the reaction is over. d) slows down the reaction and is altered. e) has no effect at all on the reaction. 27) An activation energy barrier prevents a) a non-spontaneous reaction from taking place at all. b) a spontaneous reaction from taking place at a reasonable rate. c) the rate of the reaction from changing at all. d) a catalyst from changing the rate of the reaction. e) a catalyst from binding to the substrate at an active site. 28) An enzyme is a) a lipid that binds at the active site. b) a protein that catalyses chemical reactions. c) a type of biological energy barrier. d) a protein that joins together two different chemical reactions. e) a type of chemical reaction found in cells. 29) In order to carry out all the process and reactions that they need to survive, living organisms link together spontaneous reactions that liberate energy with a) non-spontaneous reactions that need energy. b) reactions that need food energy. c) processes such as potential energy formation. d) exothermic reactions that must be carefully controlled. e) entropy increasing dispersions of energy. 30) Adenosine triphosphate is a form of short-term energy currency which is formed in cells when they a) breakdown monomers to create polymers b) combine food molecules with oxygen in a controlled manner that releases energy in a safe way that can then be trapped in the bonds of an ATP molecule. c) digest cellulose (or other carbohydrates) and move the sugars to other molecules d) breakdown their mitochondria and make new ones e) need to stop using high energy molecules for endothermic reactions.